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AlQuds Capital of Arab Culture 2009

Stone Age: ca. 4000 BC: To 1898:

Date :28 Apr 2009

Stone Age: ca. 4000 BC: Earliest settlements on present location of Jerusalem.

Bronze Age: ca. 3000 BC: Canaanites were the people of Palestine. Migration of the Semite to Palestine. (Ancient Jerusalem was located on an area of ca. 4,7 hectares)

Canaanites and Philistines:
ca. 2500 BC: Canaanites in Palestine; Jerusalem (Ursalem) built by Jebusites, a Canaanite tribe.
ca. 1842 BC: First mention of Jerusalem in a written text (Egyptian): Abraham greeted at Salem in the name of the "most high God".
ca. 1800 BC: Earliest archaeological evidence of a permanent settlement in J’lem (Jebusites).

Hyksos Rule:
ca. 1700 BC: Jerusalem destroyed by Hyksos.
- 1550 BC: Hyksos rule in Egypt and Palestine.

1550-ca.1200 BC: Jerusalem - a Canaanite city-state ruled by a king under partial Egyptian rule.
ca. 1350 BC: First mention of Jerusalem as city-state in Egyptian Amarna letters.
ca. 1300 BC: Archaeological evidence of renewed habitation; Jebusites may have rebuilt and occupied Jerusalem for the next 400 years.
ca. 1250 BC: Jewish exodus from Egypt.
ca. 1220 BC: King of Jerusalem defeated by Israelites and the city is destroyed.

Jebusites: ca. 1200-1004 BC: The Jebusites rule the city.

Israelites; 1000-587/586 BC:
King David captures the Jebusite fortress and establishes united Israelite kingdom.

1000-965 BC: City ruled by King David and is renamed from "Jebus" to "City of David".
965-928 BC: King Solomon succeeds David, erects First Temple (952).
928 BC: After Solomon's death the kingdom splits: Israel and Judah (Jerusalem is capital).
926 BC: Egyptian forces ravage Jerusalem. 840 BC: Syrian Kingdom of Damascus occupies Jerusalem until ca. 810 BC.
720 BC: Kings of Judah between rivals Assyria (later Babylonia) and Egypt; Assyrians capture Jerusalem.
701-627 BC: Assyrians beleaguer Jerusalem; Judah is a tributary state of the Assyrian Empire.

Babylonians; 587-538 BC:

587/586 BC: Nebuchadnezzar captures and destroys Jerusalem, including the First Temple.
587/6-538 BC: Babylonians (Chaldaeans) rule Jerusalem.

Persian Rule 538-333 BC: Persians overthrow Babylonian empire; Jerusalem is capital of Persian province. King Cyrus allows Jews to return.

520-515 BC: Temple is rebuilt (Second Temple).

Hellenistic Rule; 332-141 BC:

332 BC: Alexander the Great captures Jerusalem.
301 BC: After breakup of Alexander's Empire: Ptolemies of Egypt rule in Palestine.
ca. 200 BC: Greek-Syrian Seleucids capture Jerusalem. Period of extreme Hellenization.
169 BC: Seleucids ruler Antochius Epiphanos destroys the city and forbids Judaism.

Hashmonean Kingdom; 167-152 BC:

167 BC: Macabbean (Jewish) revolt; Hasmonean dynasty founded, rule Jerusalem; Temple restored.

Macabbean Jews 141-63 BC:

141 BC: Simon Macabbee recovers Jerusalem.
134 BC: Antiochus Sidetes, King of Syria, sieges city.

Roman-Byzantine Empire; 63 BC-ca. 638 AD:

63 BC: Jerusalem is captured by Pompeji, head of the Roman Army.
37 BC: Palestine is a vassal kingdom of Rome, Herod the Great the king (37-4 BC).
6-37 AD: Procuratorial rule in Jerusalem.
44-326 AD: Procuratorial rule by Rome in Jerusalem.
66-70 AD: 1st Judean revolt led by Titus against Romans; city and temple partially destroyed.
117-138 AD: Jerusalem made a Roman colony.
ca. 132 AD: Great Judean revolt, led by Bar Kochba.
135 AD: Emperor Hadrian captures Jerusalem; rename city "Aelia Capitolina", expel Jews.
235-270 AD: The Kingdom of Palmyra (Tadmor) rules in Palestine.
323 or 326 AD: Emperor Constantine moves capital from Rome to Byzanz; Christianity made official or state religion - begin of an era of Christian rule in Jerusalem.
335 AD: Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Church of Golgatha built.
614-628 AD: Persians under King Chroseos II conquer Jerusalem (Sassanid Empire).
628 AD: Roman-Byzantinian Emperor Heraclius reconquests the city.
628-638 AD: Byzantinian Christians rule the city.

Muslim Rule; 638-1072 AD:

638 AD: Jerusalem conquered by Caliph ‘Omar Ibn al-Khattab bearing the new faith of Islam. City called Al-Quds; Jews allowed to return.
661-692 AD: Ummayad dynasty.
691 AD: Ummayad Caliph Abd al-Malik builds Dome of the Rock.
709 AD: Al-Aqsa Mosque built.
750 AD: Abbasid Caliphate; capital is Baghdad.
878 AD: Tulunid dynasty.
915 AD: Ikhshidid dynasty.
969 AD: Shi'i Fatimids establish caliphate with Cairo as capital.
975 AD: Reign of Caliph al-Aziz; city walls rebuilt.
ca. 1000 AD: Fatimid empire declines.

Turks; 1072-1092 AD: Jerusalem ruled by various successor, among them Seljuk Turks.
Arabs; 1092-1099 AD: Arab reconquest of Jerusalem.
Crusader Rule; 1099-1187 AD: Christian Crusaders capture Jerusalem; city becomes capital of the Latin Kingdom.
Arabs; 1187-1517 AD:

1187 AD: Salah ed-Din reconquests city; restoration of the Muslim shrines; Jews permitted to remain and settle.
1187-1220 AD: Ayyubids rule Cairo and control Jerusalem.
1229-1239 AD: City ceded by treaty for ten years to Crusaders (Frederick II of Germany).
1239-1516 AD: Arabs regain control over the city; Arab (Mameluke) Rule.
1243/44 AD: Khwarizmians (Mongols) invade Jerusalem.

Ottoman Empire; 1517-1917:

1517 AD: Ottoman Sultan Selim defeats Mameluks, incorporates Jerusalem and Palestine into Ottoman Empire.
1537-1541 AD: Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilds city walls and restores the Dome of the Rock. 1831-1840 AD: Mohammed Ali of Egypt occupies Palestine; Egyptian rule of Jerusalem.
1841-1917 AD: Restoration of Ottoman-Turkish rule.
1876: First Ottoman parliament convened in Constantinople; first Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem elected.
1880: Ottoman administration created mutasarrifiyya of Jerusalem.
1898: A section of old city wall was removed to facilitate the entrance of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and his entourage on their visit to Jerusalem.  source: passia

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